» VMware vSphere Provider

The VMware vSphere provider gives Terraform the ability to work with VMware vSphere Products, notably vCenter Server and ESXi. This provider can be used to manage many aspects of a VMware vSphere environment, including virtual machines, standard and distributed networks, datastores, and more.

Use the navigation on the left to read about the various resources and data sources supported by the provider.

» Example Usage

The following abridged example demonstrates a current basic usage of the provider to launch a virtual machine using the vsphere_virtual_machine resource. The datacenter, datastore, resource pool, and network are discovered via the vsphere_datacenter, vsphere_datastore, vsphere_resource_pool, and vsphere_network data sources respectively. Most of these resources can be directly managed by Terraform as well - check the sidebar for specific resources.

provider "vsphere" {
  user           = "${var.vsphere_user}"
  password       = "${var.vsphere_password}"
  vsphere_server = "${var.vsphere_server}"

  # If you have a self-signed cert
  allow_unverified_ssl = true
}

data "vsphere_datacenter" "dc" {
  name = "dc1"
}

data "vsphere_datastore" "datastore" {
  name          = "datastore1"
  datacenter_id = "${data.vsphere_datacenter.dc.id}"
}

data "vsphere_resource_pool" "pool" {
  name          = "cluster1/Resources"
  datacenter_id = "${data.vsphere_datacenter.dc.id}"
}

data "vsphere_network" "network" {
  name          = "public"
  datacenter_id = "${data.vsphere_datacenter.dc.id}"
}

resource "vsphere_virtual_machine" "vm" {
  name             = "terraform-test"
  resource_pool_id = "${data.vsphere_resource_pool.pool.id}"
  datastore_id     = "${data.vsphere_datastore.datastore.id}"

  num_cpus = 2
  memory   = 1024
  guest_id = "other3xLinux64Guest"

  network_interface {
    network_id = "${data.vsphere_network.network.id}"
  }

  disk {
    label = "disk0"
    size  = 20
  }
}

See the sidebar for usage information on all of the resources, which will have examples specific to their own use cases.

» Argument Reference

The following arguments are used to configure the VMware vSphere Provider:

  • user - (Required) This is the username for vSphere API operations. Can also be specified with the VSPHERE_USER environment variable.
  • password - (Required) This is the password for vSphere API operations. Can also be specified with the VSPHERE_PASSWORD environment variable.
  • vsphere_server - (Required) This is the vCenter server name for vSphere API operations. Can also be specified with the VSPHERE_SERVER environment variable.
  • allow_unverified_ssl - (Optional) Boolean that can be set to true to disable SSL certificate verification. This should be used with care as it could allow an attacker to intercept your auth token. If omitted, default value is false. Can also be specified with the VSPHERE_ALLOW_UNVERIFIED_SSL environment variable.
  • vim_keep_alive - (Optional) Keep alive interval in minutes for the VIM session. Standard session timeout in vSphere is 30 minutes. This defaults to 10 minutes to ensure that operations that take a longer than 30 minutes without API interaction do not result in a session timeout. Can also be specified with the VSPHERE_VIM_KEEP_ALIVE environment variable.

» Session persistence options

The provider also provides session persistence options that can be configured below. These can help when using Terraform in a way where session limits could be normally reached by creating a new session for every run, such as a large amount of concurrent or consecutive Terraform runs in a short period of time.

  • persist_session - (Optional) Persist the SOAP and REST client sessions to disk. Default: false. Can also be specified by the VSPHERE_PERSIST_SESSION environment variable.
  • vim_session_path - (Optional) The direcotry to save the VIM SOAP API session to. Default: ${HOME}/.govmomi/sessions. Can also be specified by the VSPHERE_VIM_SESSION_PATH environment variable.
  • rest_session_path - (Optional) The directory to save the REST API session (used for tags) to. Default: ${HOME}/.govmomi/rest_sessions. Can also be specified by the VSPHERE_REST_SESSION_PATH environment variable.

» govc/Terraform session interoperability

Note that the session format used to save VIM SOAP sessions is the same used with govc. If you use govc as part of your provisioning process, Terraform will use the saved session if present and if persist_session is enabled.

» Debugging options

  • client_debug - (Optional) When true, the provider logs SOAP calls made to the vSphere API to disk. The log files are logged to ${HOME}/.govmomi. Can also be specified with the VSPHERE_CLIENT_DEBUG environment variable.
  • client_debug_path - (Optional) Override the default log path. Can also be specified with the VSPHERE_CLIENT_DEBUG_PATH environment variable.
  • client_debug_path_run - (Optional) A specific subdirectory in client_debug_path to use for debugging calls for this particular Terraform configuration. All data in this directory is removed at the start of the Terraform run. Can also be specified with the VSPHERE_CLIENT_DEBUG_PATH_RUN environment variable.

» Notes on Required Privileges

When using a non-administrator account to perform Terraform tasks, keep in mind that most Terraform resources perform operations in a CRUD-like fashion and require both read and write privileges to the resources they are managing. Make sure that the user has appropriate read-write access to the resources you need to work with. Read-only access should be sufficient when only using data sources on some features. You can read more about vSphere permissions and user management here.

There are a couple of exceptions to keep in mind when setting up a restricted provisioning user:

» Tags

If your vSphere version supports tags, keep in mind that Terraform will always attempt to read tags from a resource, even if you do not have any tags defined. Ensure that your user has access to at least read tags, or else you will encounter errors.

» Events

Likewise, some Terraform resources will attempt to read event data from vSphere to check for certain events (such as virtual machine customization or power events). Ensure that your user has access to read event data.

» Use of Managed Object References by the vSphere Provider

Unlike the vSphere client, many resources in the vSphere Terraform provider take Managed Object IDs (or UUIDs when provided and practical) when referring to placement parameters and upstream resources. This provides a stable interface for providing necessary data to downstream resources, in addition to minimizing the bugs that can arise from the flexibility in how an individual object's name or inventory path can be supplied.

There are several data sources (such as vsphere_datacenter, vsphere_host, vsphere_resource_pool, vsphere_datastore, and vsphere_network) that assist with searching for a specific resource in Terraform. For usage details on a specific data source, look for the appropriate link in the sidebar. In addition, most vSphere resources in Terraform supply the managed object ID (or UUID, when it makes more sense) as the id attribute, which can be supplied to downstream resources that should depend on the parent.

» Locating Managed Object IDs

There are certain points in time that you may need to locate the managed object ID of a specific vSphere resource yourself. A couple of methods are documented below.

» Via govc

govc is an vSphere CLI built on govmomi, the vSphere Go SDK. It has a robust inventory browser command that can also be used to list managed object IDs.

To get all the necessary data in a single output, use govc ls -l -i PATH. Sample output is below:

$ govc ls -l -i /dc1/vm
VirtualMachine:vm-123 /dc1/vm/foobar
Folder:group-v234 /dc1/vm/subfolder

To do a reverse search, supply the -L switch:

$ govc ls -i -l -L VirtualMachine:vm-123
VirtualMachine:vm-123 /dc1/vm/foobar

For details on setting up govc, see the homepage.

» Via the vSphere Managed Object Browser (MOB)

The Managed Object Browser (MOB) allows one to browse the entire vSphere inventory as it's presented to the API. It's normally accessed via https://VSPHERE_SERVER/mob. For more information, see here.

» Bug Reports and Contributing

For more information how how to submit bug reports, feature requests, or details on how to make your own contributions to the provider, see the vSphere provider project page.