» Backend Configuration

Each Terraform configuration can specify a backend, which defines exactly where and how operations are performed, where state snapshots are stored, etc. Most non-trivial Terraform configurations configure a remote backend so that multiple people can work with the same infrastructure.

» Using a Backend Block

Backends are configured with a nested backend block within the top-level terraform block:

terraform {
  backend "remote" {
    organization = "example_corp"

    workspaces {
      name = "my-app-prod"

There are some important limitations on backend configuration:

  • A configuration can only provide one backend block.
  • A backend block cannot refer to named values (like input variables, locals, or data source attributes).

» Backend Types

The block label of the backend block ("remote", in the example above) indicates which backend type to use. Terraform has a built-in selection of backends, and the configured backend must be available in the version of Terraform you are using.

The arguments used in the block's body are specific to the chosen backend type; they configure where and how the backend will store the configuration's state, and in some cases configure other behavior.

Some backends allow providing access credentials directly as part of the configuration for use in unusual situations, for pragmatic reasons. However, in normal use we do not recommend including access credentials as part of the backend configuration. Instead, leave those arguments completely unset and provide credentials via the credentials files or environment variables that are conventional for the target system, as described in the documentation for each backend.

See the list of backend types in the navigation sidebar for details about each supported backend type and its configuration arguments.

» Default Backend

If a configuration includes no backend block, Terraform defaults to using the local backend, which performs operations on the local system and stores state as a plain file in the current working directory.

» Initialization

Whenever a configuration's backend changes, you must run terraform init again to validate and configure the backend before you can perform any plans, applies, or state operations.

When changing backends, Terraform will give you the option to migrate your state to the new backend. This lets you adopt backends without losing any existing state.

To be extra careful, we always recommend manually backing up your state as well. You can do this by simply copying your terraform.tfstate file to another location. The initialization process should create a backup as well, but it never hurts to be safe!

» Partial Configuration

You do not need to specify every required argument in the backend configuration. Omitting certain arguments may be desirable if some arguments are provided automatically by an automation script running Terraform. When some or all of the arguments are omitted, we call this a partial configuration.

With a partial configuration, the remaining configuration arguments must be provided as part of the initialization process. There are several ways to supply the remaining arguments:

  • File: A configuration file may be specified via the init command line. To specify a file, use the -backend-config=PATH option when running terraform init. If the file contains secrets it may be kept in a secure data store, such as Vault, in which case it must be downloaded to the local disk before running Terraform.

  • Command-line key/value pairs: Key/value pairs can be specified via the init command line. Note that many shells retain command-line flags in a history file, so this isn't recommended for secrets. To specify a single key/value pair, use the -backend-config="KEY=VALUE" option when running terraform init.

  • Interactively: Terraform will interactively ask you for the required values, unless interactive input is disabled. Terraform will not prompt for optional values.

If backend settings are provided in multiple locations, the top-level settings are merged such that any command-line options override the settings in the main configuration and then the command-line options are processed in order, with later options overriding values set by earlier options.

The final, merged configuration is stored on disk in the .terraform directory, which should be ignored from version control. This means that sensitive information can be omitted from version control, but it will be present in plain text on local disk when running Terraform.

When using partial configuration, Terraform requires at a minimum that an empty backend configuration is specified in one of the root Terraform configuration files, to specify the backend type. For example:

terraform {
  backend "consul" {}

A backend configuration file has the contents of the backend block as top-level attributes, without the need to wrap it in another terraform or backend block:

address = "demo.consul.io"
path    = "example_app/terraform_state"
scheme  = "https"

The same settings can alternatively be specified on the command line as follows:

$ terraform init \
    -backend-config="address=demo.consul.io" \
    -backend-config="path=example_app/terraform_state" \

The Consul backend also requires a Consul access token. Per the recommendation above of omitting credentials from the configuration and using other mechanisms, the Consul token would be provided by setting either the CONSUL_HTTP_TOKEN or CONSUL_HTTP_AUTH environment variables. See the documentation of your chosen backend to learn how to provide credentials to it outside of its main configuration.

» Changing Configuration

You can change your backend configuration at any time. You can change both the configuration itself as well as the type of backend (for example from "consul" to "s3").

Terraform will automatically detect any changes in your configuration and request a reinitialization. As part of the reinitialization process, Terraform will ask if you'd like to migrate your existing state to the new configuration. This allows you to easily switch from one backend to another.

If you're using multiple workspaces, Terraform can copy all workspaces to the destination. If Terraform detects you have multiple workspaces, it will ask if this is what you want to do.

If you're just reconfiguring the same backend, Terraform will still ask if you want to migrate your state. You can respond "no" in this scenario.

» Unconfiguring a Backend

If you no longer want to use any backend, you can simply remove the configuration from the file. Terraform will detect this like any other change and prompt you to reinitialize.

As part of the reinitialization, Terraform will ask if you'd like to migrate your state back down to normal local state. Once this is complete then Terraform is back to behaving as it does by default.