» Command: init
terraform init command is used to initialize a working directory
containing Terraform configuration files. This is the first command that should
be run after writing a new Terraform configuration or cloning an existing one
from version control. It is safe to run this command multiple times.
terraform init [options] [DIR]
This command performs several different initialization steps in order to prepare a working directory for use. More details on these are in the sections below, but in most cases it is not necessary to worry about these individual steps.
This command is always safe to run multiple times, to bring the working directory up to date with changes in the configuration. Though subsequent runs may give errors, this command will never delete your existing configuration or state.
If no arguments are given, the configuration in the current working directory
is initialized. It is recommended to run Terraform with the current working
directory set to the root directory of the configuration, and omit the
» General Options
The following options apply to all of (or several of) the initialization steps:
-input=trueAsk for input if necessary. If false, will error if input was required.
-lock=falseDisable locking of state files during state-related operations.
-lock-timeout=<duration>Override the time Terraform will wait to acquire a state lock. The default is
0s(zero seconds), which causes immediate failure if the lock is already held by another process.
-no-colorDisable color codes in the command output.
-upgradeOpt to upgrade modules and plugins as part of their respective installation steps. See the sections below for more details.
» Copy a Source Module
terraform init assumes that the working directory already
contains a configuration and will attempt to initialize that configuration.
Optionally, init can be run against an empty directory with the
-from-module=MODULE-SOURCE option, in which case the given module will be
copied into the target directory before any other initialization steps are
This special mode of operation supports two use-cases:
Given a version control source, it can serve as a shorthand for checking out a configuration from version control and then initializing the working directory for it.
If the source refers to an example configuration, it can be copied into a local directory to be used as a basis for a new configuration.
For routine use it is recommended to check out configuration from version
control separately, using the version control system's own commands. This way
it is possible to pass extra flags to the version control system when necessary,
and to perform other preparation steps (such as configuration generation, or
activating credentials) before running
» Backend Initialization
During init, the root configuration directory is consulted for backend configuration and the chosen backend is initialized using the given configuration settings.
Re-running init with an already-initialized backend will update the working
directory to use the new backend settings. Depending on what changed, this
may result in interactive prompts to confirm migration of workspace states.
-force-copy option suppresses these prompts and answers "yes" to the
migration questions. The
-reconfigure option disregards any existing
configuration, preventing migration of any existing state.
To skip backend configuration, use
-backend=false. Note that some other init
steps require an initialized backend, so it is recommended to use this flag only
when the working directory was already previously initialized for a particular
-backend-config=... option can be used for
partial backend configuration,
in situations where the backend settings are dynamic or sensitive and so cannot
be statically specified in the configuration file.
» Child Module Installation
During init, the configuration is searched for
module blocks, and the source
code for referenced modules is retrieved from the locations
given in their
Re-running init with modules already installed will install the sources for
any modules that were added to configuration since the last init, but will not
change any already-installed modules. Use
-upgrade to override this behavior,
updating all modules to the latest available source code.
To skip child module installation, use
-get=false. Note that some other init
steps can complete only when the module tree is complete, so it's recommended
to use this flag only when the working directory was already previously
initialized with its child modules.
» Plugin Installation
During init, Terraform searches the configuration for both direct and indirect references to providers and attempts to load the required plugins.
For providers distributed by HashiCorp,
init will automatically download and install plugins if necessary. Plugins
can also be manually installed in the user plugins directory, located at
~/.terraform.d/plugins on most operating systems and
%APPDATA%\terraform.d\plugins on Windows.
For more information about configuring and installing providers, see Configuration: Providers.
On subsequent runs, init only installs providers without acceptable versions
installed. (This includes newly added providers, and providers whose installed
versions can't meet the current version constraints.) Use
-upgrade if you want
to update all providers to the newest acceptable version.
You can modify
terraform init's plugin behavior with the following options:
-upgrade— Update all previously installed plugins to the newest version that complies with the configuration's version constraints. This option does not apply to manually installed plugins.
-get-plugins=false— Skips plugin installation. Terraform will use plugins installed in the user plugins directory, and any plugins already installed for the current working directory. If the installed plugins aren't sufficient for the configuration, init fails.
-plugin-dir=PATH— Skips plugin installation and loads plugins only from the specified directory. This ignores the user plugins directory and any plugins already installed in the current working directory. To restore the default behavior after using this option, run init again and pass an empty string to
-verify-plugins=false— Skips release signature validation when installing downloaded plugins (not recommended). Official plugin releases are digitally signed by HashiCorp, and Terraform verifies these signatures when automatically downloading plugins. This option disables that verification. (Terraform does not check signatures for manually installed plugins.)
terraform init in automation
For teams that use Terraform as a key part of a change management and deployment pipeline, it can be desirable to orchestrate Terraform runs in some sort of automation in order to ensure consistency between runs, and provide other interesting features such as integration with version control hooks.
There are some special concerns when running
init in such an environment,
including optionally making plugins available locally to avoid repeated
re-installation. For more information, see
Running Terraform in Automation.